Academic publishing in Europe and N. America

Archive Publication ethics Submission Payment Contacts
In the original languageTranslation into English

The Environmental Justice Movement: An Analysis of Its Human Focus and Dynamic Pattern

Authors

Yushen Luo

Rubric:Sociology
170
1
Download articleQuote
170
1

Annotation

As global warming and climate crises become more pressing issues, an increasing number of studies have begun to focus on the intersection of environmental problems and social justice, or what is more commonly known as “environmental justice.” The present paper offers an overview of this form of justice by first illustrating the history of the environmental justice movement from a small strand of the Civil Rights Movement to an independent and comprehensive grassroots social movement. Thereafter, the paper discusses the major participants of the movement and presents the overall pattern and how grassroots efforts interact with legislative, juridical, and administrative sectors of the government. This part of the paper draws upon major cases of environmental justice from the cities of Oakland, Richmond, and Hinkley in California and Flint, Michigan. Finally, the paper describes some of the challenges that the movement has faced in connecting environmental hazards to racism and minority communities and suggests potential directions for future movements such as inter-regional efforts and more emphasis upon other climate-related problems.

Keywords

racial inequalities
global warming
government policies
urban
the United States
environmental justice

References:

ABC News Network. (n.d.). Erin Brockovich: The real story of the town three decades later. ABC News. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/US/erin-brockovich-real-story-town-decades/story?id=78180219

Banzhaf, S., Ma, L., & Timmins, C. (2019). Environmental justice: The economics of race, place, and pollution. Journal of Economic Perspectives33(1), 185-208.

Biography. Dr Robert Bullard. (n.d.). https://drrobertbullard.com/biography/

Boehm, Jessica. (n.d.-b). Metro Phoenix has confirmed 18 heat deaths so far. https://www.axios.com/local/phoenix/2023/07/20/phoenix-heat-wave-deaths-arizona

Boronow, K. E., Brody, J. G., Schaider, L. A., Peaslee, G. F., Havas, L., & Cohn, B. A. (2019). Serum concentrations of PFASs and exposure-related behaviors in African American and non-Hispanic white women. Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology29(2), 206-217.

Buckhoy, Nikita, "Environmental justice for whom?: A social construction framework analysis of executive order 12898." Environmental Justice 8. no. 5 (2015): 157-164.

Bullard, R. D., & Johnson, G. S. (1999). Environmentalism and Public Policy: Environmental Justice: Grassroots Activism and Its Impact on Public Policy Decision Making. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 555-578. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00184

Bullard, R. D., & Borgmann, A. (2007). Environmental justice for all.

Carrión, D., Belcourt, A., & Fuller, C. H. (2022). Heading upstream: strategies to shift environmental justice research from disparities to equity. American Journal of Public Health112(1), 59-62.

Carter, E. D. (2016). Environmental justice 2.0: new Latino environmentalism in Los Angeles. Local Environment21(1), 3-23.

Case: Waid v. Snyder (in re flint water cases). Waid v. Snyder (In re Flint Water Cases) 5:16-cv-10444 (E.D. Mich.) | Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse. (n.d.). https://clearinghouse.net/case/16508/

Center for American Progress. (n.d.). What policymakers need to know about today’s working class. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/article/what-policymakers-need-to-know-about-todays-working-class/

Chen, Y. W., Milstein, T., Anguiano, C., Sandoval, J., & Knudsen, L. (2012). Challenges and benefits of community-based participatory research for environmental justice: A case of collaboratively examining ecocultural struggles. Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture6(3), 403-421.

Chevron Richmond Refinery Fire. CSB. (n.d.). https://www.csb.gov/chevron-richmond-refinery-fire/

Chowkwanyun, M. (2023). Environmental Justice: Where It Has Been, and Where It Might Be Going. Annual Review of Public Health44, 93-111.

Chrisinger, Benjamin W. "All health politics is local: Community battles for medical care and environmental health, by Merlin Chowkwanyun: Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2022." (2023): 1-3.

Cole, L. W., & Foster, S. R. (2001). From the ground up: Environmental racism and the rise of the environmental justice movement (Vol. 34). NYU Press.

Copernicus confirms July 2023 was the hottest month ever recorded. World Meteorological Organization. (2023, August 11). https://public.wmo.int/en/media/news/copernicus-confirms-july-2023-was-hottest-month-ever-recorded#

Council meeting - 5/19/2015 - May 19th, 2015. (n.d.). https://richmond.granicus.com/MediaPlayer.php?view_id=30&clip_id=3811

Denchak, M. (2018, November 8). Flint water crisis: Everything you need to know, Be a Force for the Future. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/flint-water-crisis-everything-you-need-know#summary

Domingo, L. (2022, May 2). The air is cleaner on the other side of town: Environmental justice in the East Bay, East Bay Community Foundation. https://www.ebcf.org/post/the-air-is-cleaner-on-the-other-side-of-town-environmental-justice-in-the-east-bay/

Donovan, G. H., & Mills, J. (2014). Environmental justice and factors that influence participation in tree planting programs in Portland, Oregon. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry40(2), 70-7.

Encyclopædia Britannica, inc.. (n.d.). Flint, Encyclopædia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/place/Flint-Michigan

Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.-a). EPA. Learn About Environmental Justice. https://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice/learn-about-environmental-justice

Executive order 12898: Environmental justice - fema.gov. (n.d.-b). https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/documents/fema_oehp-fact-sheet-environmental-justice.pdf

Federal Register Presidential Documents - National Archives. (n.d.-a). https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12898.pdf

Flint. Flint - Place Explorer - Data Commons. (n.d.). https://datacommons.org/place/geoId/2629000/?utm_medium=explore&mprop=count&popt=Person&hl=en

Garrison, J. D. (2021). Environmental justice in theory and practice: Measuring the equity outcomes of Los Angeles and New York’s “Million Trees” campaigns. Journal of Planning Education and Research41(1), 6-17.

Genecov, M. (2022, March 30). The "Erin Brockovich" town is still toxic (and nearly abandoned). Grist. https://grist.org/Array/the-true-story-of-the-town-behind-erin-brockovich/

Guardian News and Media. (2019, October 9). Richmond v chevron: The California City taking on its most powerful polluter. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/09/richmond-chevron-california-city-polluter-fossil-fuel

Guardian News and Media. (2021, March 29). “I felt I killed my children”: Lead poisons California community – and fills kids’ teeth. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/mar/29/i-felt-i-killed-my-children-lead-poisons-california-community-and-fills-kids-teeth

Harrison, J. L. (2019). From the inside out: The fight for environmental justice within government agencies. MIT Press.

Ink, S. (2021, January 20). We act in New York State, WE ACT for Environmental Justice. https://www.weact.org/we-act-in-new-york-state/

Ink, S. (2021, February 24). Our story. WE ACT for Environmental Justice. https://www.weact.org/whoweare/ourstory/

Jacobs, E. T., Burgess, J. L., & Abbott, M. B. (2018). The Donora smog revisited: 70 years after the event that inspired the clean air act. American journal of public health108(S2), S85-S88.

Justice (EJ) provisions of the 2022 inflation - Harvard Law School. (n.d.). http://eelp.law.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/EELP-IRA-EJ-Provisions-Table.pdf

Louisiana Energy Services: Uranium and Environmental racism. Louisiana Energy Services - Uranium and Environmental Racism. (n.d.). https://www.ejnet.org/ej/les.html

Luber, G., & McGeehin, M. (2008). Climate change and extreme heat events. American journal of preventive medicine35(5), 429-435.

Mah, A. (2020, October 19). The US love canal disaster and its legacy. China Dialogue. https://chinadialogue.net/en/pollution/8878-the-us-love-canal-disaster-and-its-legacy/

Memphis Sanitation Workers’ strike. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute. (2018, June 4). https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/memphis-sanitation-workers-strike

Morris, A. D. (1999). A retrospective on the civil rights movement: Political and intellectual landmarks. Annual Review of Sociology25(1), 517-539.

Noonan, D. S. (2015). Assessing the EPA’s Experience with Equity in Standard Setting. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262028837.003.0004

Office of Environmental justice. United States Department of Justice. (2023, October 19). https://www.justice.gov/oej

Ornetzeder, M., & Rohracher, H. (2013). Of solar collectors, wind power, and car sharing: Comparing and understanding successful cases of grassroots innovations. Global Environmental Change23(5), 856-867.

Peterman, E. (n.d.). A cloud with a silver lining: The killer smog in Donora, 1948: Pennsylvania Center for the book. https://pabook.libraries.psu.edu/literary-cultural-heritage-map-pa/feature-articles/cloud-silver-lining-killer-smog-donora-1948

Press, T. A. (2023, August 1). Phoenix ends 31-day streak of highs at or above 110 degrees - by reaching 108. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2023/08/01/1191238086/phoenix-ends-31-day-streak-of-highs-at-or-above-110-degrees-by-reaching-108#

Pulido, L. (2017). Historicizing the personal and the political: Evolving racial formations and the environmental justice movement. In The Routledge handbook of environmental justice (pp. 15-24). Routledge.

Southerland, V. A., Anenberg, S. C., Harris, M., Apte, J., Hystad, P., van Donkelaar, A., ... & Roy, A. (2021). Assessing the distribution of air pollution health risks within cities: a neighborhood-scale analysis leveraging high-resolution data sets in the bay area, California. Environmental health perspectives129(3), 037006.

The United States Government. (2023, April 21). Justice40 initiative. The White House. https://www.whitehouse.gov/environmentaljustice/justice40/

United Church of Christ. Commission for Racial Justice. (1987). Toxic wastes and race in the United States: A national report on the racial and socio-economic characteristics of communities with hazardous waste sites. Public Data Access.

Van Oers, L. M., Boon, W. P. C., & Moors, E. H. (2018). The creation of legitimacy in grassroots organisations: A study of Dutch community-supported agriculture. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions29, 55-67.

Other articles of the issue

Nandi Supriatnadi, Adriana Hasibuan, Rani Arfianty SPEECH ACT DEVICES IN NIVEA COSMETICS ADVERTISEMENTS ON JAPANESE TELEVISION
Download article in PDF96 views
cc-license
About us Journals Books
Publication ethics Terms of use of services Privacy policy
Copyright 2013-2024 Premier Publishing s.r.o.
Praha 8 - Karlín, Lyčkovo nám. 508/7, PSČ 18600, Czech Republic pub@ppublishing.org